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  • 王淑敏,李倩雨.中国阻断美国次级制裁的最新立法及其完善[J].国际商务研究,2021,(4):16-29    [点击复制]
  • WANG Shumin,LI Qianyu.中国阻断美国次级制裁的最新立法及其完善[J].INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS RESEARCH,2021,(4):16-29   [点击复制]
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中国阻断美国次级制裁的最新立法及其完善
王淑敏,李倩雨
0
大连海事大学法学院,辽宁 大连 116026
摘要:
美国实施阻止其实体与目标国实体进行交易的初级制裁,而且实施禁止其实体与中国实体贸易的次级制裁,导致中国实体无法使用美元结算,正常的进出口贸易被迫中断,甚至国家整体利益也受到威胁。美国的次级制裁僭越了包括属地管辖、属人管辖、保护管辖、效果管辖和普遍管辖在内的国家管辖权理论,属于严重违反国际法的行为。中国出台《阻断外国法律与措施不当域外适用办法》给予了有力的反制。该办法是一个巨大的创新和突破,在很大程度上吸收了欧盟立法的有益经验,但仅为部门规章,效力有限。为形成系统完备的阻断法律体系,中国有必要由全国人大常委会制定一部《阻断外国法律与措施不当域外适用法》。针对该办法对人的适用范围有限、“外国法律与措施”中的“措施”语焉不详、不当域外适用的判定权限较低等问题,应将“中国公民”扩大为“在中国有经常居所地的自然人”,细化该办法语境下外国的不当措施,并提升不当域外适用判定机构的阶位。
关键词:  美国次级制裁  国家管辖权  《阻断外国法律与措施不当域外适用办法》
DOI:
基金项目:大连海事大学基本科研业务费重点科学研究培育项目“新冠肺炎疫情下我国海运服务贸易遭遇的壁垒冲击及其应对”(项目编号:3132020370)。
China’s Latest Legislation to Counteract U.S. Secondary Sanctions and Its Perfection
WANG Shumin,LI Qianyu
Abstract:
The United States not only imposes primary sanctions to prevent its entities from trading with the target countries, but also imposes secondary sanctions to prohibit its entities from trading with China once China has normal trade with these target countries. As a result, Chinese entities are unable to use U.S. dollars for settlement, and normal import and export trade is interrupted, and even the overall interests of China are threatened. The U.S. secondary sanctions overstep the theory of national jurisdiction, including territorial jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, protective jurisdiction, effect jurisdiction and universal jurisdiction, which violates international law seriously. Therefore, China has taken strong countermeasures. The introduction of Rules on Counteracting Unjustified Extra-territorial Application of Foreign Legislation and Other Measures is a great innovation and breakthrough. To a large extent, it has drawn upon the beneficial experience of EU legislation. But the Rules is only a department regulation and its effect is limited. In order to form a systematic and complete system of counteracting laws, it is necessary to formulate a Counteracting Law by the NPC Standing Committee. In addition, in view of the limited scope of application to individuals, the vague words of“measures”in“foreign legislation and other measures”and the low jurisdiction of judging improper extra-territorial application, this paper puts forward relevant suggestions: expanding“Chinese citizens”to“natural persons with habitual residence in China”, refining the foreign improper measures in the context of the above Rules, and improving the rank of the body judging improper extra-territorial application.
Key words:  U.S. secondary sanction  national jurisdiction  Rules on Counteracting Unjustified Extra-territorial Application of Foreign Legislation and Other Measures

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